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Опубликовано 20.2.2016 01:58:38
Author | Posted 02/20/2016 1:58:38
| Raising a Child Montessori method |
Today, many parents want to provide their child the harmonious and comprehensive development. But to understand all the stream rushed on us like an avalanche systems and methods is very difficult. Cards Doman, Zaitseva cubes, Waldorf system Montessori method .... the list is long.
So how do you not get lost in all this diversity?
First of all, you need to clearly understand what constitutes a particular method. And then take an informed decision. In this article, we consider one of the most popular current systems of education and child development - the Montessori method.
The author of the method is the Maria Montessori (1870-1952), Italian educator and humanist. The most important, fundamental and transmitting the essence of the method of the motto: "Help me to do it myself."
The enormous significance of Maria Montessori gave the period of development of the baby from 0 to 6 years. It is believed that during this period the most intensive development of the child, in which there are special times when the baby is particularly susceptible to a particular activity.
And if on this auspicious period near the child will not be able to develop material, the moment will be forever missed. Catch later this omission would be almost impossible. Thus was born the concept of overriding methods - developing environment.
The group, which will deal with the kids, is a seemingly ordinary, cozy games room. It spread throughout educational toys and a lot of all sorts of interesting corners. But in fact, in the room reigns strict order. Here every thing its strictly designated place and there is nothing accidental. The entire room is divided into specific areas and each of them is filled with a specially designed teaching materials.
Five child development zones
1) Zone practical life
The purpose of this zone - develop a child's self-sufficiency, which will help him in the future, everyday life and the extremely positive effect on self-esteem.
Pour water into the cup, fasten buttons, peel the potatoes, open the lock, lace up shoes ... Here, children quickly learn all these practical skills. Teacher (as part of his method called Mentor) shows children how to deal with things and what they do. Then the child is invited to act, by trial and error. It is important that all items in this zone must be real and not toy.
2) the development of the touch area
Hot cold; heavy - light; smooth - rough; long - short - these and many other concepts the child attains here empirically. Numerous frame inserts, cups, pyramid, scales, objects differ in color, texture, sound, smell and so on. Materials in this area to fully involve all organs of the baby senses: sight, hearing, smell and tactile sensations.
3) language development zone
In this zone, on the development of speech, preparation of reading and writing, a lot of attention paid to the development of fine motor skills, which is directly related to the psychomotor development of the child and the development of speech areas of the cerebral cortex. That is why many benefits of this area are aimed at massage fingers, develop hand precise movements. There is a rough and letters, and lace, and a movable alphabet and letter-liners.
4) Mathematical Zone
Then the whole environment around the child prepares it for the basics of mathematical knowledge: the ordinal counting, addition and subtraction, multiplication and division. Here you can find three-dimensional geometric shapes, rough figures, different counting stuff.
5) Area of scientific knowledge
In this zone, the child should be able to get a first impression of the outside world and the natural sciences. Basics of botany, zoology, anatomy, geography presented to here in the form of a game. Here you can find maps of wood, inserts in the form of different leaves of trees, models and cards with vegetables and fruits, sets of toy animals, a collection of minerals, volcano model and the earth's crust ...
How are classes?
The Montessori method is not traditional activities and lessons. Also, there are special places, and where the child will do. There is only light, portable chairs and tables, and mats for practicing on the floor.
Mentor is not a major figure, and almost does not interfere with children's classes, while they do not ask for help. His task - to watch from the sidelines. What to do, when, and where - the child selects and decides to only himself. All children have free access to everything that is in the Montessori group. They do not have extra time to seek help.
But, of course, no anarchy in Montessori group does not and can not. Despite the permissiveness of sight, here there are strict rules and regulations, which have to comply rigorously.
One of these rules - hover over an order of magnitude. Once a child has finished to engage with some of the benefits, it must clean up after themselves - sweep spilled, wipe up spills, collect the scattered and be sure to put everything in its place. This teaches the child to order, organization and discipline.
Another point - all the tools and materials are available in the group only in one copy. Therefore, if the desired benefit is occupied, you will have to wait their turn. It also teaches kids to be patient and procedure.
An important feature is that in the Montessori method is completely absent negative assessment of actions of the child (the criticism, comments, an indication of the error) and there is no competitive moment among children.
As with any bright around the phenomenon, the controversy surrounding the Montessori method does not cease. What arguments led criticism of this method?
The main disadvantage - a complete disregard of the creative activity of the child, lack of role-playing games, the possibility to dream. Indeed, Maria Montessori was a fairly radical views in this area. She considered harmful to children's tales, distracting from the natural knowledge of the world. Therefore, the whole system is its emphasis on the development of logical thinking and analytical skills.
Also, many psychologists and educators pay attention to some artificial environment created in the group. Developing an environment in which the child is placed on training time, forms a microcosm oversaturated subjects. In real life, the child sees a different picture and it knocks him off.
Finally, we should not forget the fact that this method does not fit into the traditional school accepted standard. A child who is in pre-school age, used that can only do what you want and move freely at the same time, it is unlikely gladly accept such moments like school desks, lessons and strict discipline. And it must also be taken into account.
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