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Lies and the truth about the famous "woman without heart" |
Court of man is rarely fair. In our judgment sticks, like garbage, husks of our own imperfections. His blunders and mistakes, we find a lot of explanations, but the other judge "with the utmost rigor" ... But the conventional wisdom, supported by quotations idea of Natalia Goncharova, Pushkin was not just distorted - they are what is called a true "exactly the opposite". Plunging into the material with a puzzled reading poisonous reasoning about it and listening to a few of its own quiet words, which have reached us, I am more and more amazed. In the language spun out of place, it would seem, the word holiness.
When autumn comes, every landscape outside the window, each yellow leaf speak in memory of Pushkin's line. That same person manages their own individual characteristics to impose an entire nation! He was, you know, in October, it is easier to breathe ... And now we are doomed hundred years mutter open them formulas that describe with absolute precision these days.
Among other precious gifts of Pushkin left us a legacy gift of friendship. He's so contagious expressed his sympathy, so admired by their friends, whose name is known to us only through the neighborhood with his name - that we have inherited his "contact list" together with his notes: awkward Kyuhlya (Kiichelbecker) and melancholic Delvig, witty Pletnev and Nashchokin simple, all so cute, forever young, fun ... ready heroes of literary anecdotes!
Similarly, "uncritically" we have taken for granted the image of his wife, which occurs between the lines of Pushkin's letters, numerous bikes contemporaries and especially contemporaries who observed the poet's family life, shall we say, not entirely impartial. Light tone that Pushkin considered suitable for epistolary intercourse with the woman, gave birth to a condescending and even scornful attitude to the mind and the spiritual qualities of Natalia Goncharova. The most complimentary thing we can find in the writings of the poet, it sounds like a mockery: "You - a clever woman and a good" - says her husband. This is something - "woman" with her wasp waist, virtuosic piano playing and impeccable aristocratic manners!
And what it really was? That is surprising: by that time, when she was left a widow with four children in their arms, impassable debts and without any means of subsistence, Natalie, perhaps, I did not know what can. Since childhood, for it solved all others: Athanasius grandfather, who raised it to 6 years old, despotic mother, then - husband is incomprehensible ...
These 5 years, 11 months and 8 days lived with Pushkin, proved a difficult challenge - "always without money, with bold servants, ill children, always on or after childbirth, or in anticipation of a child", - says Yuri Lotman. The latter makes anyone who has a personal family experience, very special, not literary, empathy: the process of pregnancy, with its problems, terms and unrest has changed little over the two centuries. Today's young lady or a young woman is not difficult to assess what it is - five pregnancies in less than six years, especially if delicate, fragile body turn childbearing into a painful ordeal. We take note of the fact that the wait in this case, help from her husband she did not have: Veresaev, biographer of Pushkin's story quotes Naschokina how Pushkin "cried at first birth, and said that he will flee from the second." Third, in May 1835, proved to be particularly painful. But after 6 months of sister brother Goncharova reports that Natalie is pregnant again and is "in the most pitiable state ..."
All this is somehow not very suggestible combined with our images of "The Grasshopper dragonfly" fluttering on the ballroom parquet. Here Pushkin constantly nags his wife, arranging her jealousy, reproaching in coquetry and knowing in the most horrible sins. Even looking at bryullovskoy favorite portrait of his beautiful wife, the "smartest husband Russia" hypochondriac is tormented by anxiety: "something you look guilty today ..."
Did he have grounds for jealousy and anxiety? - still would! Just imagine: a sixteen year old girl, who grew up in the village, brought up on French novels, where everyone, without exception, the characters are constantly covered by the "feel" strong and verbose - suddenly falls into a sparkling metropolitan crowd and makes a splash! No, none of grated The highly experienced womanizer, can not resist the disarming of its beauty! An interesting detail: when Natalie, after the death of Pushkin, Lermontov acquainted with, he tells her that he has always tried to stay away from her, "not to succumb to the general madness" and not "go over it with the mind, all" ...
And now, all of a sudden and terrible this whole whirlwind broke, and her children, as if shipwrecked, washed up in the Kaluga wilderness ... It was in the grandfather's Linen Factory - in the house, which was once abandoned child. Now it - 24; it is still the same shy girl with no experience of life, and friends; but its reputation is now tarnished with dirt and blood ...
Although Pushkin dying after a difficult conversation with his wife confidently concluded: "it is in no way to blame," but this is important evidence and remains unheard.
In addition, the young widow bears the loudest surname in Russia, so that each of its society will be considered an act in a magnifying glass. She handed out some things Pushkin his closest friends? - "Seeks to get rid of the memory of it!". Rushing to the charges, as soon as possible to get out of buzzing gossip Petersburg? - "She was not sad enough, too much engaged in laying and did not seem particularly distressed ..." - worried Sophia Karamzin, the great historian's daughter. And so - every move, every word.
It deserves special admiration that for sold her the next quarter of a century, we did not hear from her any excuses or attempts to tell his version of the tragic accident, broke her life. Just a minute of Pushkin's death, she sees: "God knows I have nothing to blame!" And yet. Calling on God to witness, Natalia once and preferred His court trial of the human mind.
In this court it was almost exclusively prosecution witnesses. And some of them had a brilliant ability to make smashing sentences, which are arrayed in the form of memorable aphorisms. Here, Marina Tsvetaeva knows neither pity nor sympathy, "Out of Natalia Goncharova's nothing wrong, nothing wrong, nothing that was not in the thousands like her - who did not were counted in thousands. Was there one thing: beauty. Just - beautiful, simple - beauty, without adjustments of the mind, heart and soul, a gift. Naked beauty Striking the sword. And at once. "
Her appearance has bewitched all and became almost the main accusation, repeated from age to age, as the spell. "Soulless beauty", "lacy soul", "doll" ...
I recall the words of Brodsky dedicated to another beauty:
... They'll patched pig
for what have not seen the end of the
in those days: for the beauty of the face.
Very few people lucky enough to see inside this radiant beauty. Here, Pushkin wrote to her: "... the soul of your love I'm even more of your face." And other contemporaries occasionally slip surprised judgments - the simplicity and smoothness of its treatment, its impeccable tact, spiritual purity, the ability courageously, without complaining, to bring his widow's burden.
But those who are in the century XIX, as well as in our day, longed for details and passion, hoping for an interesting scandal development (had a chance to get mixed up in it, and the Emperor himself) - all these observers, scoffers, wits of the then "social networks" are left with than. Natalia Goncharova, Pushkin did not give them any food for the greedy and dirty imagination. "A woman without a heart» (que c'est une femme sans Coeur) - concluded a profound disappointment loafers. What kind of a strange choice - to go to the village and to devote themselves to raising children?
If they knew! .. Her wine was worse! Being alone in the wilderness, "the first beauty of St. Petersburg", "Star of the North" surrendered himself homey, very warm, rustic piety, which then, as now, requiring courage and purity. "Sometimes this sadness grips me that I feel the need for prayer - she confessed. - These minutes before an icon of concentration, in the secluded corner of the house, bring me relief. Then I again take to the peace of mind that had often mistaken for coldness and me it accused ".
Responsible, caring and full of tenderness motherhood. Courageous, colored with irony the transfer of domestic and financial burdens. The natural cycle, which allowed her to not quarrel with any of his relatives - his and her late husband, to vex her, neglected her, bedeviling her silly advice ... And in the end of years of probation - the marriage, which has shown a remarkable sobriety of mind and the ability to appreciate the present and not decorative manhood.
It could dispose of their beauty, to turn it into capital, glitter position to silence gossip. To her woo a rich and titled bride: he was ready at once to relieve her from financial difficulties, from the spot on the reputation, and finally - of protracted mourning (husband on his deathbed punished "wear mourning for a year or two", Natalie remained widow of 7 years, all the youth, and with a sad irony, wrote to her sister: "we ferrous shlaforov do not go ..."). Bride and children ready to attach to the "elite schools", so as not to interfere with the young beauty mother enjoy life ... Goncharova answer to this enviable courtship sounds like a cannon shot, "This burden my children, that I am not her husband ...". Not betrays whether these words intonation Onegin Tatiana? That's just in my life so to speak and to feel more difficult than in the novel.
Eventually she married Peter Lansky, a decent man, a poor, right up to boredom, so biographers almost nothing to say about it, except that it is - a nice guy and a great officer. Natalie bear him three daughters, but that it will not be enough: in addition to his seven, she will take care of, feed and nurse has four children, relatives and friends. "My mission - to be the headmistress of the orphanage, - she writes Lansky. - God sends me children from all sides ... "
And it is - the word "doll", on the famous judgment Tsvetaeva? I somehow just boldly think that Pushkin's wife was quite a match for her husband in his life made a real feat, brilliantly showing a special kind of human genius. And even though she does not get her sullied a great name. It is noteworthy that the second marriage, until his death, despite the ailments, it will keep on Fridays purely post - in memory of her first husband.
Sama her death also seems a sign of God: Natalia caught cold at the christening of a long-awaited grandson, Alexander Alexandrovich. My husband begged not to go: the doctors were able just to stabilize her condition, and one of them warned Lansky: "The slightest chill will carry it, like an autumn leaf." And so it happened. Mrs. Pushkin Lansky, nee Goncharova, was little more than fifty.
"The close friendship that connects her children from both marriages and total awe of the children to her memory is the best refutation of calumnies, still it erected, - wrote Pyotr Bartenev - and proof that unjustly other called it" lace soul " while she was a beauty, not only the person but also his whole being ... "
Natalia is not justified, not bemoaned his fate, did not object to prosecutors and did not reproach. But we are sinners, it is difficult to resist the edification. It's her choice and extremely relevant today; and the fate similar to commercial values, which fills life with meaning and joy even in trials, in poverty and ridicule from the "successful and advanced contemporaries" ...
"I could never understand how can annoy noise and pranks of children - we read in one of her letters. - No matter how you were sad, inadvertently forget about it by seeing them happy and content ... "