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January 27 marks the Day of military glory of Russia - Day of breaking the blockade of Leningrad (1944), established in accordance with the Federal Law of 13 March, 1995 "On the days of military glory (victorious days) of Russia." |
It was established in accordance with the Federal Law of March 13, 1995 "On the days of military glory (victorious days) of Russia" and was formerly known as the Day of lifting of the blockade of Leningrad (1944). In November 2013, the name of the day of military glory was changed to the "Day of the complete liberation of Leningrad by the Soviet troops from his blockade by fascist troops (1944)."
Due to numerous requests residents, especially the blockade, in December 2014 the name of the days of military glory was revised again, it was called "The Day of the complete liberation of Leningrad from the Nazi blockade (1944)." The new name of the day most accurately reflects not only the role of the Soviet troops in the liberation of Leningrad from the Nazi blockade, but also the merit of the residents of besieged Leningrad in defending the city.
The blockade of the city of Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) during World War II (1941-1945) was carried out by German troops since September 8, 1941 to January 27, 1944 with the aim to break the resistance of the defenders of the city and capture it. Captured the city of the German command gave great strategic and political importance. Almost 900 days of Leningrad message is only supported on Lake Ladoga and in the air. The enemy conducted continuous bombardment and shelling of the city, has made numerous attempts to capture it. During the siege of Leningrad from hunger and shelling killed more than 641 thousand inhabitants (according to other sources, at least one million people). Under the conditions of the blockade of Leningrad worked at defense plants, they fought in the divisions of the national militia.
Soviet troops have repeatedly tried to break through the blockade, but have done so only in January 1943, during the strategic offensive forces of the Leningrad and Volkhov fronts in cooperation with the Baltic Fleet and the Ladoga Flotilla. The operation was conducted 12-30 January 1943 with the aim to restore land communications linking the city to the country. The attack was carried out on the Schlisselburg-Sinyavino ledge (Mha between the city and Lake Ladoga), that the enemy has turned into a powerful field-fortified area (up to five full-strength divisions and four divisions in the operational reserve). For his breakthrough Soviet command created two powerful strike groups that are under attack broke through the enemy defenses and formed along the shore of Lake Ladoga corridor width of 8-11 kilometers, restoring Leningrad land communication with the country. A further advance of the Soviet troops in the south of not received, but the breakthrough of the blockade was a turning point in the battle for Leningrad.
The final defeat of Nazi troops near Leningrad and the complete removal of the blockade of the city occurred in the Leningrad-Novgorod Offensive held January 14 - March 1, 1944 troops of the Leningrad, Volkhov and 2nd Baltic fronts together with the Baltic Fleet. At the same time attacks on the flank groupings of the German 18th Army near Leningrad and Novgorod, Soviet troops defeated its main force, then stepping on the Narva and Moscow areas, defeated the 16th the enemy army.
During the offensive on January 20 was released Novgorod, by the end of January - the city of Pushkin, Krasnogvardeisk, Tosno, was cleared of the enemy Oktyabrskaya railway connecting Moscow to Leningrad.
January 27, 1944 in Leningrad blockade was completely eliminated. On this day in Leningrad was given an artillery salute and fireworks (the only exception in the Great Patriotic War, other fireworks were made in Moscow). The evening of January 27 has been transferred to the Leningrad radio text of the order the troops of the Leningrad front with a message on the full lifting of the blockade. Tens of thousands of residents took to the streets, squares, embankments of the Neva River. Fireworks began at 20 hours: 24 sounded volleys of artillery, accompanied by fireworks and illuminated anti-aircraft searchlights.
In the Leningrad-Novgorod Offensive enemy group of armies "North" was thrown at 220-280 kilometers, destroyed three of its divisions and 23 defeated.
The heroic defense of Leningrad became a symbol of the courage of the Soviet people. At the cost of tremendous hardship, heroism and self-sacrifice soldiers and residents of Leningrad to defend the city. Hundreds of thousands of fighting have received government awards, 486 were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, of which eight people twice.
December 22, 1942 was established the medal "For the Defense of Leningrad", which was awarded about 1.5 million people.
January 26, 1945 the city of Leningrad was awarded the Order of Lenin. On May 1, 1945 Leningrad - the city-hero, a "Gold Star" medal was awarded May 8, 1965 the city.
In memory of the victims and the victims of the blockade of Leningrad Defence members are dedicated to the memorial ensemble Piskarevsky Serafimskogo and cemeteries around the city in the former besieged ring Front established the Green Belt of Glory.
RIA Novosti http://ria.ru/spravka/20150127/1044393529.html#ixzz3Q1gBhO3H